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More Adventures in MVVM Shout it kick it on

I have been taking a few weeks off from my personal studies/experiments in the .Net space to learn more about Ruby and Ruby on Rails (RoR).  I have two main goals for this study:

  1. Get to know another platform as an option for future development
  2. Examine how I can incorporate different concepts into my existing framework

What follows is intended to document my experimentation with the second bullet:  How might we design a ViewModel if we were in Rails?  My thoughts on this are still forming, and I am still a novice in the RoR arena, so cut me some slack :).

I am pretty vocal about my thoughts on the MVVM pattern.  I really like the pattern a lot and I think it solves a lot of problems that I encounter on a daily basis.  Unfortunately, the implementation of the pattern – ViewModels specifically – often get overly complicated.  This is why there are about a dozen major players in this arena.  The plumbing necessary to create a good ViewModel is tedious and error prone.  A good set of abstractions and tools make the job much easier.

The RoR approach to application development uses a lot of conventions to allow the developer to be as expressive as possible without introducing too much plumbing.  The framework facilitates DRY (Don’t Repeat Yourself) so your controllers declare what they do and the magic under the hood plumbs it all together for you.  How can we translate these ideas to a better implementation of the MVVM pattern?  In this article, I will focus on the ViewModel portion of the MVVM pattern.

A classic ViewModel implementation

This view is simple.  There is a text box bound to the Text property in the ViewModel and a button bound to the MakeLowercase command (property) in the ViewModel.  The button is enabled/disabled based on the length of the Text property and clicking on the button will cause the text to go to lowercase.

<TextBox Text="{Binding Text, Mode=TwoWay, UpdateSourceTrigger=PropertyChanged}" Grid.Column="0" />
<Button Content="Make Lower" Commands:Click.Command="{Binding MakeLowercase}" Grid.Column="1" />

Next is the ViewModel in its pure (no abstractions) form:

public class MainPageViewModel : INotifyPropertyChanged
    public MainPageViewModel()
        MakeLowercase = new DelegateCommand<pobject>(ExecuteMakeLowercase, CanExecuteMakeLowercase);

    private void ExecuteMakeLowercase(object obj)
        Text = Text.ToLower();

    private bool CanExecuteMakeLowercase(object arg)
        return !string.IsNullOrEmpty(Text);

    private string _text;
    public string Text
        get { return _text; }
            _text = value;

    private DelegateCommand<object> _makeLowercase;
    public DelegateCommand<object> MakeLowercase
        get { return _makeLowercase; }
            _makeLowercase = value;

    protected void FirePropertyChanged(string propertyName)
        var handlers = PropertyChanged;
        if (handlers != null)
            handlers(this, new PropertyChangedEventArgs(propertyName));

    public event PropertyChangedEventHandler PropertyChanged;

Problems with the traditional ViewModel implementation

  1. Lots of plumbing (Command in the constructor, PropertyChanged in property setters, ExecuteChanged evaluation in the Text setter, etc)
  2. Verbose properties (We can’t use auto-properties because of the need to notify of changes
  3. Unrelated events (Text property needs to know that CanExecuteMakeLowercase needs to be re-evaluated)
  4. INotifyPropertyChanged is error-prone due to string events
  5. Lots of redundancies makes maintenance messy

What a Rails-Inspired ViewModel might look like

public class MainPageViewModel : ActiveViewModel<MainPageViewModel.Properties>
    public enum Properties { Text }

    public void Execute_MakeLowercase()
        Set(Properties.Text, Get<string>(Properties.Text).ToLower());

    public bool CanExecute_MakeLowercase()
        return !string.IsNullOrEmpty(Get<string>(Properties.Text));

My goal was to reduce the amount of plumbing and redundancies in this code to communicate only what it needs to

  1. There is one property named Text
  2. The MakeLowercase command will act on the Text property and make it lowercase
  3. CanExecuteMakeLowercase will return true if Text has meaningful data
  4. CanExecuteMakeLowercase needs to be re-evaluated with Text changes

There is a lot of magic in ActiveViewModel.  I am using convention to define the properties as a list of enums (Properties).  The ActiveViewModel will generate these properties dynamically.  I am also using convention to create commands.  Any method that is prefixed with Execute_ will be made into a command property.  Any method prefixed with CanExecute_ will be evaluated in the same command.  Further, the CanExecute_ method can declare the properties that will cause the commands to re-evaluate, putting the dependency where it belongs – with the method that is dependant upon it!  Testability is really easy: Call the actions and validate the properties (via public Get()).  I didn’t implement it, but actions based on property setters could very easily use the DependentUpon attribute to avoid INotifyPropertyChanged chaining that can get quite ugly.


I think this approach has a lot of potential.  I am posting it in order to move the conversation forward.  When the MVVM dust settles, and we have some best practices flushed out, what do we want our ViewModels to look like?  Even though I consider this class experimental and exploratory (not meant to be used in production), I feel compelled to call out some weaknesses that will (or may) need to be addressed for a more production-ready base class:

  1. The ActiveViewModel class will not work in Silverlight.  It relies heavily on custom type descriptors which are not available in Silverlight.  Hopefully, in Silverlight 4.0, we will have some better support for dynamic property generation.  This may be in the form of C# 4.0 (with the DynamicObject.Try[SG]etMember overrides, for instance), property descriptors, or something else (better IronRuby support, perhaps?)
  2. There is not a lot of type safety with the properties.  They are stored internally as plain objects.  The Get method lets you get at a type-casted value, but you need to know it when you ask for it.  We might change the property declaration from an enum to a list of name/type pairs and enforce some better type safety in the base class?
  3. Because there are not properties, we loose “equals semantics”.  Get/Set is harder to read/follow than simply assigning and reading properties

Finally, in case you are curious, you can see my implementation (at the time of this post) of the ActiveViewModel from my Launchpad project.

Posted on Tuesday, October 20, 2009 1:22 PM | Back to top

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